No Rules Rules 读后

《No Rules Rules》by Reed Hastings / Erin Meyer

四星评价,这是一本就介绍 Netflix 文化和管理的书。很有启发,但是不太容易复制,too hard in practice.

总结下来就三个大点:1. High talent density; 2. Culture of candor; 3. Context, not control。为什么很难复制呢,因为单就第一条就说明很难了,哪里能招到那么牛人。但第一条(第一章)也是后面一切(后面九章)的基础。

这是一本蛮实践的书,里面很多 Netflix 自己的案例。

  1. Build a workplace of stunning colleagues
    • Your number one goal as a leader is to develop a work environment consisting exclusively of stunning colleagues.
    • Stunning colleagues accomplish significant amounts of important work and are exceptionally creative and passionate.
    • Jerks, slackers, sweet people with nonstellar performance, or pessimists left on the team will bring down the performance of everyone.
  2. Let people say what they really think (with positive intent)
    • With candor, high performers become outstanding performers. Frequent candid feedback exponentially magnifies the speed and effectiveness of your team or workforce.
    • Set the stage for candor by building feedback moments into your regular meetings.
    • Coach your employees to give and receive feedback effectively, following the 4A guidelines.
      • (Giver) Aim to Assist
      • (Giver) Actionable
      • (Receiver) Appreciate
      • (Receiver) Accept or discard
    • As the leader, solicit feedback frequently and respond with belonging cues when you receive it.
    • Get rid of jerks as you instill a culture of candor.
  3. Remove controls on vacations & expenses
    • When removing travel and expense policies, encourage managers to set context about how to spend money up front and to check employee receipts at the back end. If people overspend, set more context.
    • With no expense controls, you’ll need your finance department to audit a portion of receipts annually.
    • When you find people abusing the system, fire them and speak about the abuse openly—even when they are star performers in other ways. This is necessary so that others understand the ramifications of behaving irresponsibly.
    • Some expenses may increase with freedom. But the costs from overspending are not nearly as high as the gains that freedom provides.
    • With expense freedom, employees will be able to make quick decisions to spend money in ways that help the business.
    • Without the time and administrative costs associated with purchase orders and procurement processes, you will waste fewer resources.
    • Many employees will respond to their new freedom by spending less than they would in a system with rules. When you tell people you trust them, they will show you how trustworthy they are.
  4. Pay top of the market
    • The methods used by most companies to compensate employees are not ideal for a creative, high-talent-density workforce.
    • Divide your workforce into creative and operational employees. Pay the creative workers top of market. This may mean hiring one exceptional individual instead of ten or more adequate people.
    • Don’t pay performance-based bonuses. Put these resources into salary instead.
    • Teach employees to develop their networks and to invest time in getting to know their own—and their teams’—market value on an ongoing basis. This might mean taking calls from recruiters or even going to interviews at other companies. Adjust salaries accordingly.
  5. Open the books
    • To instigate a culture of transparency, consider what symbolic messages you send. Get rid of closed offices, assistants who act as guards, and locked spaces.
    • Open up the books to your employees. Teach them how to read the P&L. Share sensitive financial and strategic information with everyone in the company.
    • When making decisions that will impact your employees’ well-being, like reorganizations or layoffs, open up to the workforce early, before things are solidified. This will cause some anxiety and distraction, but the trust you build will outweigh the disadvantages.
    • When transparency is in tension with an individual’s privacy, follow this guideline: If the information is about something that happened at work, choose transparency and speak candidly about the incident. If the information is about an employee’s personal life, tell people it’s not your place to share and they can ask the person concerned directly if they choose.
    • As long as you’ve already shown yourself to be competent, talking openly and extensively about your own mistakes—and encouraging all your leaders to do the same—will increase trust, goodwill, and innovation throughout the organization.
  6. No decision-making approvals needed
    • In a fast and innovative company, ownership of critical, big-ticket decisions should be dispersed across the workforce at all different levels, not allocated according to hierarchical status.
    • In order for this to work the leader must teach her staff the Netflix principle, “Don’t seek to please your boss.”
    • When new employees join the company, tell them they have a handful of metaphorical chips that they can make bets with. Some gambles will succeed, and some will fail. A worker’s performance will be judged on the collective outcome of his bets, not on the results from one single instance.
    • To help your workforce make good bets, encourage them to farm for dissent, socialize the idea, and for big bets, test it out.
    • Teach your employees that when a bet fails, they should sunshine it openly.
  7. The keeper test
    • In order to encourage your managers to be tough on performance, teach them to use the Keeper Test: “Which of my people, if they told me they were leaving for a similar job at another company, would I fight hard to keep?
    • Avoid stack-ranking systems, as they create internal competition and discourage collaboration.
    • For a high-performance culture, a professional sports team is a better metaphor than a family. Coach your managers to create strong feelings of commitment, cohesion, and camaraderie on the team, while continually making tough decisions to ensure the best player is manning each post.
    • When you realize you need to let someone go, instead of putting him on some type of PIP, which is humiliating and organizationally costly, take all that money and give it to the employee in the form of a generous severance payment.
    • The downside to a high-performance culture is the fear employees may feel that their jobs are on the line. To reduce fear, encourage employees to use the Keeper Test Prompt with their managers: “How hard would you work to change my mind if I were thinking of leaving?”
    • When an employee is let go, speak openly about what happened with your staff and answer their questions candidly. This will diminish their fear of being next and increase their trust in the company and its managers.
  8. Max up candor using feedback circles
    • Candor is like going to the dentist. Even if you encourage everyone to brush daily, some won’t do it. Those who do may still miss the uncomfortable spots. A thorough session every six to twelve months ensures clean teeth and clear feedback.
    • Performance reviews are not the best mechanism for a candid work environment, primarily because the feedback usually goes only one way (down) and comes from only one person (the boss).
    • A 360 written report is a good mechanism for annual feedback. But avoid anonymity and numeric ratings, don’t link results to raises or promotions, and open up comments to anyone who is ready to give them.
    • Live 360 dinners are another effective process. Set aside several hours away from the office. Give clear instructions, follow the 4A feedback guidelines, and use the Start, Stop, Continue method with roughly 25 percent positive, 75 percent developmental—all actionable and no fluff.
  9. Lead with context, not controls
    • In order to lead with context, you need to have high talent density, your goal needs to be innovation (not error prevention), and you need to be operating in a loosely coupled system.
    • Once these elements are in place, instead of telling people what to do, get in lockstep alignment by providing and debating all the context that will allow them to make good decisions.
    • When one of your people does something dumb, don’t blame that person. Instead, ask yourself what context you failed to set. Are you articulate and inspiring enough in expressing your goals and strategy? Have you clearly explained all the assumptions and risks that will help your team to make good decisions? Are you and your employees highly aligned on vision and objectives?
    • A loosely coupled organization should resemble a tree rather than a pyramid. The boss is at the roots, holding up the trunk of senior managers who support the outer branches where decisions are made.
    • You know you’re successfully leading with context when your people are moving the team in the desired direction by using the information they’ve received from you and those around you to make great decisions themselves.
  10. Going global
    • Map out your corporate culture and compare it to the cultures of the countries you are expanding into. For a culture of F&R, candor will need extra attention.
    • In less direct countries, implement more formal feedback mechanisms and put feedback on the agenda more frequently, because informal exchanges will happen less often.
    • With more direct cultures, talk about the cultural differences openly so the feedback is understood as intended.
    • Make ADAPTABILITY the fifth A of your candor model. Discuss openly what candor means in different parts of the world. Work together to discover how both sides can adapt to bring this value to life.