Contagious by Jonah Berger
近期读过的非常好的 marketing 类图书，主要分析为什么一个火的东西能能够火起来。这年头，于个人，于产品，marketing 已经越来越重要了，酒香也怕巷子深。作者分析了 virality 的六个因素，Social Currency, Triggers, Emotion, Public, Practical Value, Stories, 简称为 STEPPS, 也挺好记的。
Importance of Word of Mouth:
- “more importantly, it built a following” (Barclay Prime Cheeseburger)
- People love to share stories, news, and information with those around them.
- People share more than 16,000 words per day and every hour there are more than 100 million conversations about brands.
- Research finds that only 7 percent of word of mouth happens online.
- Word of mouth is naturally directed toward an interested audience.
Virality isn’t born, it’s made.
- Social Currency
- We share things that make us look good
- Top of mind, tip of tongue
- When we care, we share
- built to show, built to grow
- Practical Value
- News you can use
- Information travels under the guise of idle chatter
Products or ideas that contain Social Currency and are Triggered, Emotional, Public, Practically Valuable, and wrapped into Stories.
- Here’s a little secret about secrets: they tend not to stay secret very long — because people share them. Why? because: “bragging rights”
- People share things that make them look good to others.
- People prefer sharing things that make them seem entertaining rather than boring, clever rather dumb, and hip rather than dull
- To get people talking, companies and organizations need to mint social currency. Give people a way to make themselves look good while promoting their products and ideas along the way. There are three ways to do that:
- find inner remarkability
- Remarkable things are defined as unusual, extraordinary, or worthy of notice or attention: novel, surprising, extreme, or just plain interesting.
- Remarkable stories grow over time (when passing from one person to another). It becomes more and more remarkable along the way.
- One way to generate surprise is by breaking a pattern people have come to expect.
- Mysteries and controversy are also often remarkable.
- Examples: Snapple fun facts, viral videos, black toilet paper
- leverage game mechanics
- Game mechanics also motivate us on interpersonal level by encouraging social comparison.
- This is how game mechanics boosts word of mouth. People are talking because they want to show off their achievements, but along the way they talk about the brands or domains where they achieved.
- Examples: frequent flier program, status system, contest
- make people feel like insiders
- Both used scarcity and exclusivity to make customers feel like insiders.
- Exclusivity isn’t just about money or celebrity. It’s also about knowledge. Knowing certain information or being connected to people who do.
- This limited availability makes us feel like we have to act now. If we don’t we might miss the opportunity even if we might not have otherwise wanted the opportunity in the first place. (Disney regularly takes off some popular cartoon movies for some time, McDonald brought back some unpopular items for a limited time)
- The mere fact that something isn’t readily available can make people value it more and tell others to capitalize on the social currency of knowing about it or having it.
- Examples: group buy site, membership-only model, flash sale, pop-up store
- find inner remarkability
- We need to design products and ideas that are frequently triggered by the environment and create new triggers by linking our products and ideas to prevalent cues in that environment.
- Marketing is about tapping into their genuine enthusiasm for products and services that they find useful, or fun, or beautiful.
- Interesting products received more immediate word of mouth than boring products, but they don’t sustain levels of word of mouth activity over time.
- Why does it matter if particular thoughts or ideas are top of mind? Because accessible thoughts and ideas lead to action.
- Rather than just going for a catchy message, consider the context.
- Competitors can even be used as a trigger — poison parasite
- What makes for an effective trigger? Frequency and strength of the link
- Examples: Mars bars got a kick from NASA landing rovers on Mars, voting from different locations like school or church, “Friday” song, Kit Kat and coffee, songs from different countries boost sales of different items in grocery stores
- Rather than harping on function, we need to focus on feelings.
- High-arousal emotions, physiologically or physically, boost sharing
- Use “Three Whys” to find the emotional core of an idea. Write down why you think people are doing something. Then ask “Why is this important?” three times. Each time you do this, note your answer, and you’ll notice that you drill down further and further toward uncovering not only the core of an idea but the emotion behind it.
- Fixing high-arousal negative emotions early can mitigate the negativity before it snowballs.
- “People don’t want to feel like they are being told something – they want to be entertained, they want to be moved.”
- Examples: Google’s “Search On” video ads, boycott videos
- Public visibility – if something is built to show, it’s built to grow.
- “Social proof”
- Making things more observable
- Behavior is public and thoughts are private:
- Make the private public
- Generating public signals for private choices, actions, and opinions. Taking what was once an unobservable thought or behavior and transforming it into a more observable one.
- Behavioral residue – generate social proof that sticks around even when the product isn’t being used or the idea is not top of mind, things that live on
- Examples: Apple logo on their laptop, canned laugh tracks on TV shows, Movember, hotmail, sent from iphone, Livestrong wristbands (behavioral residue), brand shopping bags
- If Social Currency is about information senders and how sharing makes them look, Practical Value is mostly about the information receiver.
- Sale / Deal (saving money):
- Reference point – People don’t evaluate things in absolute terms. They evaluate them relative to a comparison standard, or “reference point”
- Diminishing sensitivity
- Making promotions more restrictive can actually make them more effective.
- Useful information, is another form of practical value.
- how the information is packaged, who is the audience
- Narrower content may actually be more likely to be shared because it reminds people of a specific friend or family member and makes them feel compelled to pass it along
- Practical vale is about helping. It’s also about altruism, the inherent goodness of people. We care about others and we want to make their lives better.
- Examples: articles about retirement plan, deals, “fake news”
- People don’t think in terms of information. They think in terms of narratives.
- People don’t like to seem like walking advertisements. (wrap information into a story!)
- Mistake: they focus so much on getting people to talk that they ignore the part that really matters: what people are talking about. If the content is unrelated to the product or idea, they don’t get talked about.
- Critical details stick around, while irrelevant ones drop out
- Social Currency
- Does talking about your product or idea make people look good?
- can you find the inner remarkability?
- Leverage game mechanics?
- Make people feel like insiders?
- Consider the context.
- What cues make people think about your product or idea?
- How can you grow the habitat and make it come to mind more often?
- Focus on feelings.
- Does talking about your product or idea generate emotion?
- How can you kindle the fire?
- Does your product or idea advertise itself?
- Can people see when others are using it?
- If not, how can you make the private public?
- Can you create behavioral residue that sticks around even after people use it?
- Practical Value
- Does talking about your product or idea help people help others?
- How can you highlight incredible value, packaging your knowledge and expertise into useful information others will want to disseminate?
- What is your Trajan Horse?
- Is your product or idea embedded in a broader narrative that people want to share?
- Is the story not only viral, but also valuable?